Intern Report Case Presentation 2.4


Presented by Debia Kim, MD


CC: Abdominal pain, nausea, and diarrhea
HPI: 9 y/o boy who was recently diagnosed with DM1 (2 months ago) presents to the ED with 7 days of waxing and waning vomiting and diarrhea associated with persistent nausea.  Today his abdominal pain is more severe.  Mom says he vomited 5 times yesterday and 4 times this morning before coming to the ED.  The vomitus was clear and not associated with coughing or eating.  He also has brown diarrhea.  He had 3 episodes yesterday and 4 this morning.     A crampy and stabbing generalized abdominal pain varies from a 5 to a 10 out of 10 in severity and is persistently present.  His appetite and activity are decreased.  He denies fever/chills, headache, dysuria, frequency, hematuria, cough and rash.  One week prior to his current presentation the patient was evaluated in Endocrine clinic, where he was told his blood work was “normal.”  Four days prior to his current presentation, he was evaluated at another ED and was dischared home with a prescription for ondansetron and recommended to follow at Children’s Hospital if his pain persisted and concern for possible appendicitis.

PMH: DM diagnosed 2 months ago when he presented in DKA.
PSH: None
Medications: Lantus 8 units subq qhs, zofran prn
Allergies: NKDA
Immunizations UTD
FH: htn
SH: lives with mom, dad, siblings, no smokers in the home.  He is in 3rd grade, doing well at school.

VS – BP 125/70, HR 80, RR 30, T 36.6 (temporal), 98% on RA
Constitutional – alert, cooperative male in NAD, well-hydrated
HEENT – NCAT, PERRL bilaterally, EOMI, sclera noninjected, oral mucosa moist without lesions,     no posterior pharyngeal erythema, TMs are clear bilaterally.
Neck – supple, no meningismus, no lymphadenopathy
CV – RRR, +S1, +S2 without murmurs/rubs/gallops.  Cap refill < 2 sec.
Resp – CTAB, no rales, wheezes, rhonchi
Abd – soft, flat, ND, +BS everywhere.  +mild tenderness to palpation in RUQ.  No rebound, no     guarding.  Negative Murphy’s, negative Rovsing, no tenderness at McBurney’s point.  No     palpable masses, no flank/CVA tenderness.
Rectal – No stool present in the rectal vault, hemeoccult negative.
Genitalia – normal external male genitalia with descended testicles bilaterally
Extremities – warm, dry, 2+ pulses x all 4 ext.  FROM, no tenderness, swelling, no rashes.

Lab Results:
cbg 7.33/35/74.3/18/97%, lactate 1.8
serum acetone neg
serum Osm 295
Ca 10.2
Mag 1.8
Phos 4.5
ALT/AST 33/27
stool cx neg
rotavirus neg
U/A: LE neg, nitrite neg, glucose neg, ketones neg, bili neg, protein neg, RBC

Diagnostic Studies
Abd Xray: Nonspecific bowel gas pattern, with a few air-fluid levels seen in nondilated loops of small bowel on the right.
Abd US: Multiple prominent mesenteric lymph nodes with no sonographic evidence of appendicitis.


A. What is the most likely diagnosis?

  1. Early appendicitis
  2. Gastroenteritis
  3. Diabetic Ketoacidosis
  4. Cyclical Vomiting Syndrome
  5. Inflammatory Bowel Disease

B.  True or false: this patient may benefit from an anti-motility agent and early attempts at solid food intake

C.  Which of the following anti-emetic drugs works both centrally in the vomiting center and peripherally in the afferent visceral nervous fibers?

  1. Prochlorperazine
  2. Diphenhydramine
  3. Ondansetron
  4. Meclizine
  5. Marinol

Please submit your answers to the questions in the “leave a reply” box or click on the “comments” link.  Your submission will not immediately post.  Answers with a case discussion will post on Friday.  If you have any difficulty, please contact the site administrator at Thank you for participating in Receiving’s: Intern Report.

13 Responses

  1. 2,T,3

  2. 1. Gastro
    2. False
    3. Ondansetron

  3. 2. Gastro
    3. Ondansetron

  4. 1. 2 gastro
    2. False
    3. 3 ondansetron

  5. 2 f 3

  6. 1) 2
    2) 1
    3) 3

  7. 1. B
    2. F
    3. C

  8. 1. 2
    2. F
    3. 3

  9. 1. Early AP
    2. False
    3. Ondansetron

  10. A.1
    B. false

  11. 2,f,1

  12. 1. Early appendicitis
    2. False
    3. Prochlorperazine

  13. 1., false, 1.

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